Sep 6, Wales push forward at Cardiff City Stadium and Joe Allen gets in a strike. This is blocked, however, by a determined Ireland defence. Okt. 28/09/ Republic of Ireland v Wales 2 3 Friendly 11/09/ Wales v Republic Of Ireland 2 1 Friendly 24/02/ Republic of Ireland v. This database is a compilation of about 60, coats of arms. It "comprises the Armorial Bearings of the Noblemen and Gentlemen of the British Empire, and the .
It remained the dominant language of Ireland for most of those periods, having influences from Latin , Old Norse , French and English.
It declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century, and since then has been a minority language.
The Gaelic Revival of the early twentieth century has had a long-term influence. Irish is taught in mainstream Irish schools as a compulsory subject, but teaching methods have been criticised for their ineffectiveness, with the lack of level of ability after, typically, fourteen years of instruction cited.
There is now an extensive network of urban Irish speakers in both the Republic and Northern Ireland , especially in Dublin and Belfast.
They represent an expanding demographic, [ citation needed ] and their children often attend Irish-medium schools Gaelscoileanna.
It has been argued that they tend to be more highly educated than monolingual English speakers. Traditional rural Irish-speaking areas, known collectively as the Gaeltacht , are in linguistic decline.
The main Gaeltacht areas are in the west, south-west and north-west. English in Ireland was first introduced during the Norman invasion. It was spoken by a few peasants and merchants brought over from England, and was largely replaced by Irish before the Tudor conquest of Ireland.
It was introduced as the official language with the Tudor and Cromwellian conquests. The Ulster plantations gave it a permanent foothold in Ulster, and it remained the official and upper-class language elsewhere, the Irish-speaking chieftains and nobility having been deposed.
Language shift during the 19th century replaced Irish with English as the first language for a vast majority of the population.
Shelta , the language of the nomadic Irish Travellers is native to Ireland. This combination of cultural influences is visible in the intricate designs termed Irish interlace or Celtic knotwork.
These can be seen in the ornamentation of medieval religious and secular works. The style is still popular today in jewellery and graphic art,  as is the distinctive style of traditional Irish music and dance, and has become indicative of modern "Celtic" culture in general.
Religion has played a significant role in the cultural life of the island since ancient times and since the 17th century plantations , has been the focus of political identity and divisions on the island.
These missions brought written language to an illiterate population of Europe during the Dark Ages that followed the fall of Rome , earning Ireland the sobriquet, "the island of saints and scholars".
Since the 20th century the Irish pubs worldwide have become, especially those with a full range of cultural and gastronomic offerings, outposts of Irish culture.
Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Poetry in Irish is among the oldest vernacular poetry in Europe, with the earliest examples dating from the 6th century.
Irish remained the dominant literary language down to the nineteenth century, despite the spread of English from the seventeenth century on.
The latter part of the nineteenth century saw a rapid replacement of Irish by English. By , however, cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival , which saw the beginnings of a modern literature in Irish.
Other notable eighteenth century writers of Irish origin included Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan , though they spent most of their lives in England.
The playwright and poet Oscar Wilde , noted for his epigrams, was born in Ireland. In the 20th century, Ireland produced four winners of the Nobel Prize for Literature: Although not a Nobel Prize winner, James Joyce is widely considered to be one of the most significant writers of the 20th century.
Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times. Outside religious establishments, musical genres in early Gaelic Ireland are referred to as a triad of weeping music goltraige , laughing music geantraige and sleeping music suantraige.
In the 19th century, public concerts provided access to classical music to all classes of society. Yet, for political and financial reasons Ireland has been too small to provide a living to many musicians, so the names of the better-known Irish composers of this time belong to emigrants.
Irish traditional music and dance has seen a surge in popularity and global coverage since the s. In the middle years of the 20th century, as Irish society was modernising, traditional music had fallen out of favour, especially in urban areas.
Groups and musicians including Horslips , Van Morrison and Thin Lizzy incorporated elements of Irish traditional music into contemporary rock music and, during the s and s, the distinction between traditional and rock musicians became blurred, with many individuals regularly crossing over between these styles of playing.
The earliest known Irish graphic art and sculpture are Neolithic carvings found at sites such as Newgrange  and is traced through Bronze age artefacts and the religious carvings and illuminated manuscripts of the medieval period.
During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, a strong tradition of painting emerged, including such figures as John Butler Yeats , William Orpen , Jack Yeats and Louis le Brocquy.
The Irish philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton , an Irish explorer, was one of the principal figures of Antarctic exploration. He, along with his expedition, made the first ascent of Mount Erebus and the discovery of the approximate location of the South Magnetic Pole.
Robert Boyle was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist. Father Nicholas Joseph Callan , Professor of Natural Philosophy in Maynooth College , is best known for his invention of the induction coil , transformer and he discovered an early method of galvanisation in the 19th century.
With Sir John Douglas Cockcroft , he was the first to split the nucleus of the atom by artificial means and made contributions to the development of a new theory of wave equation.
Sir Joseph Larmor , a physicist and mathematician, made innovations in the understanding of electricity, dynamics, thermodynamics and the electron theory of matter.
His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in George Johnstone Stoney introduced the term electron in Notable mathematicians include Sir William Rowan Hamilton , famous for work in classical mechanics and the invention of quaternions.
Cosgrave was a specialist in number theory and discovered a digit prime number in and a record composite Fermat number in John Lighton Synge made progress in different fields of science, including mechanics and geometrical methods in general relativity.
He had mathematician John Nash as one of his students. Kathleen Lonsdale , born in Ireland and most known for her work with crystallography , became the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Ireland has nine universities, seven in the Republic of Ireland and two in Northern Ireland, including Trinity College, Dublin and the University College Dublin , as well as numerous third-level colleges and institutes and a branch of the Open University, the Open University in Ireland.
Gaelic football is the most popular sport in Ireland in terms of match attendance and community involvement, with about 2, clubs on the island.
The island fields a single international team in most sports. One notable exception to this is association football, although both associations continued to field international teams under the name "Ireland" until the s.
The sport is also the most notable exception where the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland field separate international teams.
Northern Ireland has produced two World Snooker Champions. Gaelic football , hurling and handball are the best-known of the Irish traditional sports, collectively known as Gaelic games.
During the redevelopment of the Lansdowne Road stadium in —10, international rugby and soccer were played there.
The game has been played in an organised fashion in Ireland since the s, with Cliftonville F. It was most popular, especially in its first decades, around Belfast and in Ulster.
However, some clubs based outside Belfast thought that the IFA largely favoured Ulster-based clubs in such matters as selection for the national team.
However, both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland, with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams.
Both also referred to their respective teams as Ireland. Northern Ireland qualified for the World Cup finals in reaching the quarter-finals , and and the European Championship in The Republic qualified for the World Cup finals in reaching the quarter-finals , , and the European Championships in , and Across Ireland, there is significant interest in the English and, to a lesser extent, Scottish soccer leagues.
Unlike soccer, Ireland continues to field a single national rugby team and a single association, the Irish Rugby Football Union IRFU , governs the sport across the island.
The Irish rugby team have played in every Rugby World Cup , making the quarter-finals in six of them. Ireland also hosted games during the and the Rugby World Cups including a quarter-final.
There are four professional Irish teams; all four play in the Pro14 and at least three compete for the Heineken Cup. Irish rugby has become increasingly competitive at both the international and provincial levels since the sport went professional in During that time, Ulster ,  Munster  and  and Leinster , and  have won the Heineken Cup.
In addition to this, the Irish International side has had increased success in the Six Nations Championship against the other European elite sides.
This success, including Triple Crowns in , and , culminated with a clean sweep of victories, known as a Grand Slam , in and Horse racing and greyhound racing are both popular in Ireland.
There are frequent horse race meetings and greyhound stadiums are well-attended. The island is noted for the breeding and training of race horses and is also a large exporter of racing dogs.
Olive Loughnane won a silver medal in the 20k walk in the World Athletics Championships in Berlin in Ireland has won more medals in boxing than in any other Olympic sport.
Boxing is governed by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association. In Kenneth Egan won a silver medal in the Beijing Games. Katie Taylor has won gold in every European and World championship since Golf is very popular, and golf tourism is a major industry attracting more than , golfing visitors annually.
Three golfers from Northern Ireland have been particularly successful. Open , and the first European to win that tournament since Rory McIlroy , at the age of 22, won the U.
The west coast of Ireland, Lahinch and Donegal Bay in particular, have popular surfing beaches, being fully exposed to the Atlantic Ocean.
Since just before the year , Bundoran has hosted European championship surfing. Scuba diving is increasingly popular in Ireland with clear waters and large populations of sea life, particularly along the western seaboard.
There are also many shipwrecks along the coast of Ireland, with some of the best wreck dives being in Malin Head and off the County Cork coast.
The temperate Irish climate is suited to sport angling. While salmon and trout fishing remain popular with anglers, salmon fishing in particular received a boost in with the closing of the salmon driftnet fishery.
Coarse fishing continues to increase its profile. Sea angling is developed with many beaches mapped and signposted,  and the range of sea angling species is around For example, whilst from the Middle Ages until the arrival of the potato in the 16th century the dominant feature of the Irish economy was the herding of cattle, the number of cattle a person owned was equated to their social standing.
For this reason, pork and white meat were more common than beef and thick fatty strips of salted bacon known as rashers and the eating of salted butter i.
All of these influences can be seen today in the phenomenon of the " breakfast roll ". The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine thereafter.
Great poverty encouraged a subsistence approach to food and by the midth century the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and milk.
Since the last quarter of the 20th century, with a re-emergence of wealth in Ireland, a "New Irish Cuisine" based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences  has emerged.
An example of this new cuisine is "Dublin Lawyer": Traditional regional foods can be found throughout the country, for example coddle in Dublin or drisheen in Cork, both a type of sausage, or blaa , a doughy white bread particular to Waterford.
Irish whiskey, as researched in by the CNBC American broadcaster, remains popular domestically and has grown in international sales steadily over a few decades.
Stout , a kind of porter beer , particularly Guinness , is typically associated with Ireland, although historically it was more closely associated with London.
Porter remains very popular, although it has lost sales since the midth century to lager. Cider , particularly Magners marketed in the Republic of Ireland as Bulmers , is also a popular drink.
Red lemonade , a soft-drink, is consumed on its own and as a mixer, particularly with whiskey. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the island in Europe.
For the sovereign state of the same name, see Republic of Ireland. For the part of the United Kingdom, see Northern Ireland.
For other uses, see Ireland disambiguation. Island in north-west Europe, 20th largest in world, politically divided into the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland a part of the UK.
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As many as 10 million Irish natives left Ireland in only a period of a few hundred years, and millions of Scottish natives did the same. Circumstances such as the Great Potato Famine, or the religious discrimination experienced by the Scotch-Irish , or the economic oppression of the cruel Irish-Catholic sharecropping system which caused millions of Irish to starve and leave, if they could , led to one of the largest mass migrations in history.
Irish immigrants to the United States were very successful for many reasons, and this is why you can find evidence of Irish DNA in every corner of the US and in many other parts of the world.
The most important thing to know is that it will be easier to trace more recent history, and the further back you go in time, the more difficult it will be to obtain reliable records.
You never know what you might find once you get started building your tree. I recommend taking the following steps to start building your tree and finding your Irish, Scottish, or Welsh ancestors:.
Check out the extensive records offered on Ancestry with a two-week free trial. If you have any questions, comments, or would like to share your experience of finding this ethnicity in your results, I would love to hear from you below.
In this post, you will learn: An early festivity was Mabsant when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church.
Calan Gaeaf , associated with the supernatural and the dead, is observed on 1 November All Saints Day. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Wales disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. National Assembly UK Parliament.
Wales in the Roman era. Glamorgan and Lower Swansea valley. Local government in Wales. History of local government in Wales. List of settlements in Wales by population and List of towns in Wales.
Tourism in Wales and Agriculture in Wales. List of universities in Wales and List of further education colleges in Wales.
Demography of Wales and Demography of the United Kingdom. Languages of Wales , Welsh language , and Welsh English. Mythology Matter of Britain Arthurian legend Mabinogion.
Music and performing arts. National symbols of Wales. List of newspapers in Wales. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys , "men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common.
The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry Saeson , as today but just as often as Eingl Angles , Iwys Wessex-men , etc.
Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia — at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh.
It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole see for instance Rachel Bromwich ed. See also Discussion in Reference The meaning behind the Welsh motto".
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